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Kirmanjí Kurdish "what"

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zimanzan
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Kirmanjí Kurdish counterparts for "what" as follow:

Northern: ci, cí, ko, ku, cet

Central: cí, ce, ku

Southern: ce, ci, cik

The varieties with initial "c-" are of Iranian origin. "Ci" and "cik" are further forms of original "ce" and "cí" is inspired with Persian: "cí". Therefore "ce" is purer. However "cet" (Northern Kirmanjí) is apparently the closest form to the Old Iranian "cet"*. If I am not going to be mistaken it shares the same root with English "what" (notice the final "-t"). Also Zaza dialectal "cit" and some Mazandarani rural accents "cet", share the same root.

The most interesting variety is "ku". It frequently shows up in both Northern and Central dialects:

kusan : cisan : how come

koreng : cireng : what kind

kilon : cilon : (in) what quality/manner; how

kú : cú, cewa : how

Although it's going to give its seat to the prevailing Iranian "c-", but amazingly we can still find it. Its origin is most likely Hittite (from P.I.E "qwod" neutral singular form of "qwos"* ~ "who").

Hittites were Indo European people and used to live in Anatolia. The newborn nation of Scythian-Mede origin, namely Kurds, imbibed a significant part of Hittites; as we can currently discern significant Hittite words in modern Kurdish, specially Northern Kirmanjí. I will note the rest of those words later.

I believe that words like "ko" ~ "what" could be easily interpreted as indisputable exemplars of uniqueness of Kurdish.

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Hesen
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I think the variant cí from

double post

Hesen
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Old Iranian

According to Paul Horn it was in Avesta "cít" and in Middle Persian "cíh". The "cé" is only typical Persian change of long /í/ to /é/ as in many other words. From where you have that it was in Old Iranian "cet"?

zimanzan
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It was just a quick mention to the Old Iranian form, I just didn't check it out prior to wrting because I was willing to stress the final "-t", which I was sure that exists. Thanks for your note anyways.

By the way you gave me a dizziness for a moment by writing Middle Persian form as "cíh". I checked it in McKenzie's Pahlavi dictionary. It is explicitly "cé". There is only a "céíh" which is composed of "cé" and "-íh" and means "quality; manner".

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Hesen
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I think the variant cí from

I think the variant cí from Soraní is the most original form. Kurmanjí changes sometimes the long í into a dump i, like in:

bézanim > bízanim > bizanim = that i know.

zimanzan
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I disbelieve. Regarding to all existing varieties as well as older forms that agree with "ci", "ce", "cet", etc. and the fact that "cí" is only found in those speeches which are apt to change middle "é" to "í" therefore I believe that Soraní "cí" is either a Persian influence or ultimately a Persian loan. The supposed Old Iranian "cít" (as you allege) doesn't appear in any further Iranian forms and finally we find it in Persian, Lurí, and Northern Soraní subdialects as "cí" which is doubtlessly a continuation of Middle Persian "cé". Common Iranian words, combined of this form, don't show the smallest sign of "cí" but "ci" or "ce": "cend" < "ci-end" ~ "how much", "cewagon" < "ce-wagon" ~ "how come, how". On the other hand we have New Persian "bí-" ~ "without" and its ancient form is "ví-". But you can assert by no means that this Persian "bí-" is directly derived from "ví-", since we got Middle Persian form "bé-" which tells on these: ví > vé* > bé > bí. Don't let the outward to deceive you. You must carry out precise measurements to obtain reliable reasoning.

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Hesen
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Yes you are right, "cet" is

Yes you are right, "cet" is the most original variant in Kurdish.